Hardwood regeneration related to overstory shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) basal area, site index, and time since cutting in Arkansas and eastern OklahomaThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Shortleaf pine grows in association with many other species, particularly understory hardwoods, which compete with it, limiting its productivity (Bower and Ferguson 1968, Cain 1988). Which species are the most competitive varies with site quality, density of the pine overstory and years since thinning. Basal area and site index closely approximate the principle ordination axes, indicating their importance as proxies of competition and site quality. The objective was to measure temporal changes in species composition of the understory over a range of overstory site indices, stand ages and stocking levels.