ConclusionsThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Forest ecosystems in the United States in the year 2100 will differ from those of today as a result of a changing climate. Those differences will be superimposed on the human imprint of forest management and the legacies of other land use activities, stressors, and disturbances of the 19th and 20th centuries. Future changes in forest ecosystems will occur across both public and private lands and will challenge our ability to manage forests sustainably, especially as the human population continues to grow, demands for ecosystem services increase, and fossil fuel supplies decrease. We summarize below the most important inferences from the preceding chapters, with emphasis on issues most relevant to land managers.